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    西媒盤點被世人曲解的文學人物:洛麗塔不是勾引人的壞女孩

    作者:佚名 編輯: 文章來源:參考消息網 時間:2017年10月17日 點擊: 加入收藏 】【 字體:

    西媒稱,文學作品給我們留下了很多描述方式。例如,用彼得潘指代不愿長大的人,用堂·吉訶德指代理想主義者等。然而,有些時候我們也會犯錯誤。例如,洛麗塔不是勾引人的壞女孩,“英雄母親”也不是英雄,馬基雅維利更不貪戀權勢。

    據西班牙《國家報》9月24日報道,通常用一些令人印象深刻的文學形象來為一類人或一種疾病命名。這些詞匯已經在日常用語當中占據了重要地位,甚至在詞典當中也有一席之地。

    “美洲”這個詞誕生于9世紀,意大利商人阿梅里科·韋斯普奇為美洲新大陸的發現作出巨大貢獻,因此后人就用它的名字為美洲命名。而帕金森綜合征的名稱則來源于發現這種疾病的帕金森醫生。

    報道稱,文學作品,尤其是史詩級著作能夠言簡意賅地描述人類的性格特征。然而,隨著時間的推移,某些人物所代表的性格特征已經背離了原作的初衷。

    最典型的濫用現象發生在納博科夫創作的文學人物洛麗塔身上。這部作品以第一人稱的口吻描述了主人公對一個12歲小女孩洛麗塔的癡迷。

    對于洛麗塔被世人解讀為一個勾引人的壞女孩,就連納博科夫本人都感到十分驚訝。1975年在接受法國媒體采訪時,他斷然否認自己創作了一個引人墮落的女孩。他說:“她是一個墮落的可憐女孩。而且她的墮落被夸大了。在西方媒體的誤導下,一切都變了味兒。”即便到了21世紀,洛麗塔還常被用來形容那些陷入不倫戀當中的年輕女孩。

    另一個誤解發生在德國作家貝托爾特·布雷希特的作品《英雄母親和她的孩子們》當中。后人在演繹他的作品時,將主人公描述成為一個大無畏的母親。但實際上,布雷希特在原作中描繪了一個為了生存而不顧一切的卑鄙女人。

    馬基雅維利是意大利文藝復興時期重要的哲學家、歷史學家、政治家、外交官。他所著的《君主論》提出了現實主義的政治理論,廣為后人所援引。然而,后人卻把馬基雅維利的政治理論曲解為“馬基雅維利主義”。實際上,當時這個詞匯只是被用于描述16世紀出現的一些政治著作。由于這種曲解,馬基維利主義一詞在現代經常被用以描述為達目的可以不擇手段的政治立場。令人欣慰是,如今已經有政治家為他正名,并指出馬基雅維利多年來受到的這種待遇是不公平的。(編譯/劉麗菲)


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