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    “萌文化”破壞了傳統語言秩序?

    作者:常江 編輯: 文章來源:新浪網 時間:2016年06月05日 點擊: 加入收藏 】【 字體:

    “萌文化”破壞了傳統語言秩序?

     “萌”源于日本動漫

     

      “萌”這個字眼本是源于日本動漫文化的一個故意的詞匯誤用,常被二次元熱愛者用于形容“極端喜好的對象”或“對某一對象的極端喜好”,比如眼睛占臉一多半的可愛少女(蘿莉)角色。流傳到中文語境后,大致成了與“可愛”、“喜歡”接近的同義詞,可做形容詞,“某某很萌”;可做動詞,“我很萌某某”;亦可疊用為名詞,“某某真是個萌萌”。其應用范圍,也大大超越了動漫領域,而泛化為年輕人的日常用詞。當一個人舍棄了“可愛”而用“萌”這個字眼來描述自己對某一對象的喜愛時,這個人是在表達一種強烈的主觀意愿,而不僅僅是在描述對方“可愛”這個簡單的現實。因此,“萌”與“萌文化”在中國的流行,有一層文化政治的意蘊。

     

      創作者有意植入“萌元素”

     

      大約因為“萌”文化源于動漫體系,因此動畫電影或帶有動漫色彩的電影的創作者時常有意識地植入“萌元素”,以迎合年輕觀眾的審美趣味。2010年的好萊塢動畫片《神偷奶爸》(DespicableMe)雖未在中國大陸正式上映,但影片中那些被中國觀眾親切稱為“小黃人”的智能生物還是借助網絡在這個國家火得一塌糊涂。今年的國產電影保護月,也有兩部帶有鮮明的“萌”色彩的影片上映,均反響火爆。一是動畫片《大圣歸來》,其內的“兄貴”孫悟空和“正太”江流兒(童年唐僧)便頗具萌物風范,瞬間吸引大量擁躉。二是晚些上映的《捉妖記》,其塑造的妖王“胡巴”形象難以界定,卻瞬間風靡全國,連外國觀眾也為之側目,《捉妖記》更以超過24億元人民幣的票房收入戴上中國影史票房桂冠。孫悟空、江流兒、胡巴,連同此前的小黃人在中國的全面走紅,或許預示著“萌文化”已經成為構成當代青年流行文化的一支重要的力量。

      文化工業體系按消費力旺盛的群體的需求進行針對性生產,這無可厚非。市場也確鑿無疑地給予這些影片的制作者以豐沃的酬賞。但要尋根溯源,搞清楚為什么當下的年輕人——甚至包括一些不那么年輕的人——喜歡萌物、萌元素、萌文化,卻并不那么容易。

     

      “萌”取代了可愛、喜歡

     

      首要的一個原因,當然就是“萌”對于“可愛”、“喜歡”的取替,體現了一種對傳統語言秩序的破壞,從而給使用者帶來了某種主動性、某種表達的快感。一般而言,對“可愛”和“喜歡”的判斷必須要遵循一些公認的客觀規律(比如人們普遍認為“小白兔是可愛的,也是招人喜歡的”,卻不會普遍對大灰狼做出這樣的理解),而“萌”則完全是一種個性的表達,不按常理出牌,不走尋常路。這也就是說,不同的人可以被不同的萌物吸引,也可以理直氣壯地去“萌”其他人完全不感興趣的東西。

      在流行的“萌”文化中,“萌”的對象已被創作者進行了事無巨細的分類,大到某種類型的人物的職業身份和外形特征,小到某種服飾、發型、表情等,都可以成為“萌”的對象。既然眾口難調,那便干脆不去調。萌物千萬款,總有一款投你所好。哪怕都不入你的法眼,也沒關系,你盡可自行去尋覓,乃至生造。所以說,“萌”這個字眼不是一個平淡無奇的流行語,而有著文化政治的意味在里面。它能十年來流行不衰,概源于此。

     

      在“萌”中遁入無性世界

     

      當然,“萌”文化還有一個顯著的特點,就是“無性”(sexless)。不過,這里的性不是簡單粗暴的性別、性關系和性行為等,而是一種構成文化的重要維度。百余年來,文化工業高度仰賴圍繞著性的差異形成的二元結構來組織流行文化的生產,這就相應地形成了所謂的“男性氣質”和“女性氣質”,以及全知全能的“愛情的力量”。

      不信就去看看好萊塢在過去一百年里傾心打造的那些光芒四射的明星,多是典型的“硬漢”與典型的“女神”。“女漢子”(男性化的女性)也有,但“偽娘”(扮裝成女性的男性)委實不多,就算有,也是作為丑角出現(而偽娘在萌文化中聲望頗高)。

      所以,性別差異和二元結構不能算是什么大問題,關鍵在于這個系統將“男性氣質”置于“女性氣質”之上,從而對后者構成了壓迫,也令前者承擔起巨大的文化壓力。

      但在萌文化體系中,這個系統被破壞了,或者說被虛無化了。我們所接受的“萌”對象,或是無性別的,如從形象上不辨男女的小黃人(實際上導演在訪問中自述小黃人是男性)和胡巴,或即便有生理性別卻并無顯著的性別特征(如全無情欲的孫悟空和喪失攻擊性的唐僧)。相應地,這些電影也并不以愛情作為組織敘事的線索或解決問題的終極路徑,而是更為強調個人奮斗與自我拯救。

      這對于一直被流行文化所規制和壓抑的兩性氣質來說,無疑具有一種解放的作用。這種解放不是對創作者的解放(創作者反而被束縛了),而是對觀眾的解放。觀眾在欣賞和接受這些對象的時候,可以跳出性別的二元結構框架,獲得一種沒有心理負擔的快感。

      事實上,很多電影雖然聲稱是給小朋友看的,但二三十歲的大朋友也在貢獻票房,成為“全年齡段”作品。這在表面上是源于“大朋友”童心未泯,實質的原因則是他們在找尋遁入無性世界的可能。

     

      將對象“寵物化”去逃避矛盾

     

      不過,“萌文化”只能算是流行文化的一種有意義的新形式,它為現有的僵化體系提供了一種清新的選擇,也賦予了消費者更加強大也更加多元的力量。但在某種程度上,“萌文化”其實是在以將對象“寵物化”的方式去逃避真實的矛盾,從而也就逃避了藝術創作的批判性價值旨歸。我們很難想象一種成熟、健康的文化中會以氣餒充斥著天真爛漫、與世無爭、鉚足了勁扮可愛以求戳中盡可能多的人的“萌點”的奇怪生物為榮。也就是說,當我們把完全無害的“萌”視作一種天經地義的審美規則,“萌”的概念也就被泛化,其附加的進步意義和解放價值也會被稀釋。

      “萌”字在漢語中的本意,其實是描述一種本真的蒙昧狀態,佛經中說“開化顯示真實之際,欲拯群萌,惠以真實之利”,描述的就是這種狀態。故而,“萌”的本質應當是人的本真性情的流露,而不是一種對外物的苛求。

      所以說,情到深處自然萌,講求的就是彼時彼地的獨特心境。文化終究要進步,人也終究要成長。把對“萌”的情結視為對本真性情的回歸,要比將“萌”改造為普遍性的文化形式更有意義。


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